Python 100天-從新手到大師學習筆記Day36:關聯資料庫MySQL

  • Oracle — 目前世界上使用最为广泛的数据库管理系统,作为一个通用的数据库系统,它具有完整的数据管理功能
  • MySQL — MySQL是开放源代码的,任何人都可以在GPL(General Public License)的许可下下载并根据个性化的需要对其进行修改。MySQL因为其速度、可靠性和适应性而备受关注。
  • PostgreSQL — 在BSD许可证下发行的开放源代码的关系数据库产品。

SQL详解

-- 如果存在名为school的数据库就删除它
drop database if exists school;

-- 创建名为school的数据库并设置默认的字符集和排序方式
create database school default charset utf8 collate utf8_bin;

-- 切换到school数据库上下文环境
use school;

-- 创建学院表
create table tb_college
(
collid int auto_increment comment '编号',
collname varchar(50) not null comment '名称',
collmaster varchar(20) not null comment '院长',
primary key (collid)
);

-- 创建学生表
create table tb_student
(
stuid int not null comment '学号',
stuname varchar(20) not null comment '姓名',
stusex boolean default 1 comment '性别',
stubirth date not null comment '出生日期',
stuaddr varchar(255) default '' comment '籍贯',
collid int not null comment '所属学院',
primary key (stuid),
foreign key (collid) references tb_college (collid)
);

-- 创建教师表
create table tb_teacher
(
teaid int not null comment '工号',
teaname varchar(20) not null comment '姓名',
teatitle varchar(10) default '助教' comment '职称',
collid int not null comment '所属学院',
primary key (teaid),
foreign key (collid) references tb_college (collid)
);

-- 创建课程表
create table tb_course
(
couid int not null comment '编号',
couname varchar(50) not null comment '名称',
coucredit int not null comment '学分',
teaid int not null comment '授课老师',
primary key (couid),
foreign key (teaid) references tb_teacher (teaid)
);

-- 创建选课记录表
create table tb_record
(
recid int auto_increment comment '选课记录编号',
sid int not null comment '选课学生',
cid int not null comment '所选课程',
seldate datetime default now() comment '选课时间日期',
score decimal(4,1) comment '考试成绩',
primary key (recid),
foreign key (sid) references tb_student (stuid),
foreign key (cid) references tb_course (couid),
unique (sid, cid)
);

DML

-- 插入学院数据
insert into tb_college (collname, collmaster) values
('计算机学院', '左冷禅'),
('外国语学院', '岳不群'),
('经济管理学院', '风清扬');

-- 插入学生数据
insert into tb_student (stuid, stuname, stusex, stubirth, stuaddr, collid) values
(1001, '杨逍', 1, '1990-3-4', '四川成都', 1),
(1002, '任我行', 1, '1992-2-2', '湖南长沙', 1),
(1033, '王语嫣', 0, '1989-12-3', '四川成都', 1),
(1572, '岳不群', 1, '1993-7-19', '陕西咸阳', 1),
(1378, '纪嫣然', 0, '1995-8-12', '四川绵阳', 1),
(1954, '林平之', 1, '1994-9-20', '福建莆田', 1),
(2035, '东方不败', 1, '1988-6-30', null, 2),
(3011, '林震南', 1, '1985-12-12', '福建莆田', 3),
(3755, '项少龙', 1, '1993-1-25', null, 3),
(3923, '杨不悔', 0, '1985-4-17', '四川成都', 3),
(4040, '隔壁老王', 1, '1989-1-1', '四川成都', 2);

-- 删除学生数据
delete from tb_student where stuid=4040;

-- 更新学生数据
update tb_student set stuname='杨过', stuaddr='湖南长沙' where stuid=1001;

-- 插入老师数据
insert into tb_teacher (teaid, teaname, teatitle, collid) values
(1122, '张三丰', '教授', 1),
(1133, '宋远桥', '副教授', 1),
(1144, '杨逍', '副教授', 1),
(2255, '范遥', '副教授', 2),
(3366, '韦一笑', '讲师', 3);

-- 插入课程数据
insert into tb_course (couid, couname, coucredit, teaid) values
(1111, 'Python程序设计', 3, 1122),
(2222, 'Web前端开发', 2, 1122),
(3333, '操作系统', 4, 1122),
(4444, '计算机网络', 2, 1133),
(5555, '编译原理', 4, 1144),
(6666, '算法和数据结构', 3, 1144),
(7777, '经贸法语', 3, 2255),
(8888, '成本会计', 2, 3366),
(9999, '审计学', 3, 3366);

-- 插入选课数据
insert into tb_record (sid, cid, seldate, score) values
(1001, 1111, '2017-09-01', 95),
(1001, 2222, '2017-09-01', 87.5),
(1001, 3333, '2017-09-01', 100),
(1001, 4444, '2018-09-03', null),
(1001, 6666, '2017-09-02', 100),
(1002, 1111, '2017-09-03', 65),
(1002, 5555, '2017-09-01', 42),
(1033, 1111, '2017-09-03', 92.5),
(1033, 4444, '2017-09-01', 78),
(1033, 5555, '2017-09-01', 82.5),
(1572, 1111, '2017-09-02', 78),
(1378, 1111, '2017-09-05', 82),
(1378, 7777, '2017-09-02', 65.5),
(2035, 7777, '2018-09-03', 88),
(2035, 9999, default, null),
(3755, 1111, default, null),
(3755, 8888, default, null),
(3755, 9999, '2017-09-01', 92);

DQL

-- 查询所有学生信息
select * from tb_student;

-- 查询所有课程名称及学分(投影和别名)
select couname, coucredit from tb_course;
select couname as 课程名称, coucredit as 学分 from tb_course;

-- 查询所有学生的姓名和性别(条件运算)
select stuname as 姓名, case stusex when 1 then '男' else '女' end as 性别 from tb_student;
select stuname as 姓名, if(stusex, '男', '女') as 性别 from tb_student;

-- 查询所有女学生的姓名和出生日期(筛选)
select stuname, stubirth from tb_student where stusex=0;

-- 查询所有80后学生的姓名、性别和出生日期(筛选)
select stuname, stusex, stubirth from tb_student where stubirth>='1980-1-1' and stubirth<='1989-12-31';
select stuname, stusex, stubirth from tb_student where stubirth between '1980-1-1' and '1989-12-31';

-- 查询姓"杨"的学生姓名和性别(模糊)
select stuname, stusex from tb_student where stuname like '杨%';

-- 查询姓"杨"名字两个字的学生姓名和性别(模糊)
select stuname, stusex from tb_student where stuname like '杨_';

-- 查询姓"杨"名字三个字的学生姓名和性别(模糊)
select stuname, stusex from tb_student where stuname like '杨__';

-- 查询名字中有"不"字或"嫣"字的学生的姓名(模糊)
select stuname, stusex from tb_student where stuname like '%不%' or stuname like '%嫣%';

-- 查询没有录入家庭住址的学生姓名(空值)
select stuname from tb_student where stuaddr is null;

-- 查询录入了家庭住址的学生姓名(空值)
select stuname from tb_student where stuaddr is not null;

-- 查询学生选课的所有日期(去重)
select distinct seldate from tb_record;

-- 查询学生的家庭住址(去重)
select distinct stuaddr from tb_student where stuaddr is not null;

-- 查询男学生的姓名和生日按年龄从大到小排列(排序)
select stuname as 姓名, datediff(curdate(), stubirth) div 365 as 年龄 from tb_student where stusex=1 order by 年龄 desc;

-- 查询年龄最大的学生的出生日期(聚合函数)
select min(stubirth) from tb_student;

-- 查询年龄最小的学生的出生日期(聚合函数)
select max(stubirth) from tb_student;

-- 查询男女学生的人数(分组和聚合函数)
select stusex, count(*) from tb_student group by stusex;

-- 查询课程编号为1111的课程的平均成绩(筛选和聚合函数)
select avg(score) from tb_record where cid=1111;

-- 查询学号为1001的学生所有课程的平均分(筛选和聚合函数)
select avg(score) from tb_record where sid=1001;

-- 查询每个学生的学号和平均成绩(分组和聚合函数)
select sid as 学号, avg(score) as 平均分 from tb_record group by sid;

-- 查询平均成绩大于等于90分的学生的学号和平均成绩
-- 分组以前的筛选使用where子句 / 分组以后的筛选使用having子句
select sid as 学号, avg(score) as 平均分 from tb_record group by sid having 平均分>=90;

-- 查询年龄最大的学生的姓名(子查询/嵌套的查询)
select stuname from tb_student where stubirth=( select min(stubirth) from tb_student );

-- 查询年龄最大的学生姓名和年龄(子查询+运算)
select stuname as 姓名, datediff(curdate(), stubirth) div 365 as 年龄 from tb_student where stubirth=( select min(stubirth) from tb_student );

-- 查询选了两门以上的课程的学生姓名(子查询/分组条件/集合运算)
select stuname from tb_student where stuid in ( select stuid from tb_record group by stuid having count(stuid)>2 );

-- 查询学生姓名、课程名称以及成绩(连接查询)
select stuname, couname, score from tb_student t1, tb_course t2, tb_record t3 where stuid=sid and couid=cid and score is not null;

-- 查询学生姓名、课程名称以及成绩按成绩从高到低查询第11-15条记录(内连接+分页)
select stuname, couname, score from tb_student inner join tb_record on stuid=sid inner join tb_course on couid=cid where score is not null order by score desc limit 5 offset 10;

select stuname, couname, score from tb_student inner join tb_record on stuid=sid inner join tb_course on couid=cid where score is not null order by score desc limit 10, 5;

-- 查询选课学生的姓名和平均成绩(子查询和连接查询)
select stuname, avgmark from tb_student, ( select sid, avg(score) as avgmark from tb_record group by sid ) temp where stuid=sid;

select stuname, avgmark from tb_student inner join ( select sid, avg(score) as avgmark from tb_record group by sid ) temp on stuid=sid;

-- 查询每个学生的姓名和选课数量(左外连接和子查询)
select stuname, ifnull(total, 0) from tb_student left outer join ( select sid, count(sid) as total from tb_record group by sid ) temp on stuid=sid;

DCL

-- 创建名为hellokitty的用户
create user 'hellokitty'@'%' identified by '123123';

-- 将对school数据库所有对象的所有操作权限授予hellokitty
grant all privileges on school.* to 'hellokitty'@'%';

-- 召回hellokitty对school数据库所有对象的insert/delete/update权限
revoke insert, delete, update on school.* from 'hellokitty'@'%';

Python数据库编程

drop database if exists hrs;
create database hrs default charset utf8;

use hrs;

drop table if exists tb_emp;
drop table if exists tb_dept;

create table tb_dept
(
dno int not null comment '编号',
dname varchar(10) not null comment '名称',
dloc varchar(20) not null comment '所在地',
primary key (dno)
);

insert into tb_dept values
(10, '会计部', '北京'),
(20, '研发部', '成都'),
(30, '销售部', '重庆'),
(40, '运维部', '深圳');

create table tb_emp
(
eno int not null comment '员工编号',
ename varchar(20) not null comment '员工姓名',
job varchar(20) not null comment '员工职位',
mgr int comment '主管编号',
sal int not null comment '员工月薪',
comm int comment '每月补贴',
dno int comment '所在部门编号',
primary key (eno)
);

alter table tb_emp add constraint fk_emp_dno foreign key (dno) references tb_dept (dno);

insert into tb_emp values
(7800, '张三丰', '总裁', null, 9000, 1200, 20),
(2056, '乔峰', '分析师', 7800, 5000, 1500, 20),
(3088, '李莫愁', '设计师', 2056, 3500, 800, 20),
(3211, '张无忌', '程序员', 2056, 3200, null, 20),
(3233, '丘处机', '程序员', 2056, 3400, null, 20),
(3251, '张翠山', '程序员', 2056, 4000, null, 20),
(5566, '宋远桥', '会计师', 7800, 4000, 1000, 10),
(5234, '郭靖', '出纳', 5566, 2000, null, 10),
(3344, '黄蓉', '销售主管', 7800, 3000, 800, 30),
(1359, '胡一刀', '销售员', 3344, 1800, 200, 30),
(4466, '苗人凤', '销售员', 3344, 2500, null, 30),
(3244, '欧阳锋', '程序员', 3088, 3200, null, 20),
(3577, '杨过', '会计', 5566, 2200, null, 10),
(3588, '朱九真', '会计', 5566, 2500, null, 10);

安装PyMySQL

pip install pymysql

添加一个部门

import pymysql


def main():
no = int(input('编号: '))
name = input('名字: ')
loc = input('所在地: ')
# 1. 创建数据库连接对象
con = pymysql.connect(host='localhost', port=3306,
database='hrs', charset='utf8',
user='root', password='123456')
try:
# 2. 通过连接对象获取游标
with con.cursor() as cursor:
# 3. 通过游标执行SQL并获得执行结果
result = cursor.execute(
'insert into tb_dept values (%s, %s, %s)',
(no, name, loc)
)
if result == 1:
print('添加成功!')
# 4. 操作成功提交事务
con.commit()
finally:
# 5. 关闭连接释放资源
con.close()


if __name__ == '__main__':
main()

删除一个部门

import pymysql


def main():
no = int(input('编号: '))
con = pymysql.connect(host='localhost', port=3306,
database='hrs', charset='utf8',
user='root', password='123456',
autocommit=True)
try:
with con.cursor() as cursor:
result = cursor.execute(
'delete from tb_dept where dno=%s',
(no, )
)
if result == 1:
print('删除成功!')
finally:
con.close()


if __name__ == '__main__':
main()

更新一个部门

import pymysql


def main():
no = int(input('编号: '))
name = input('名字: ')
loc = input('所在地: ')
con = pymysql.connect(host='localhost', port=3306,
database='hrs', charset='utf8',
user='root', password='123456',
autocommit=True)
try:
with con.cursor() as cursor:
result = cursor.execute(
'update tb_dept set dname=%s, dloc=%s where dno=%s',
(name, loc, no)
)
if result == 1:
print('更新成功!')
finally:
con.close()


if __name__ == '__main__':
main()

查询所有部门

import pymysql
from pymysql.cursors import DictCursor


def main():
con = pymysql.connect(host='localhost', port=3306,
database='hrs', charset='utf8',
user='root', password='123456')
try:
with con.cursor(cursor=DictCursor) as cursor:
cursor.execute('select dno as no, dname as name, dloc as loc from tb_dept')
results = cursor.fetchall()
print(results)
print('编号\t名称\t\t所在地')
for dept in results:
print(dept['no'], end='\t')
print(dept['name'], end='\t')
print(dept['loc'])
finally:
con.close()


if __name__ == '__main__':
main()

分页查询员工信息

import pymysql
from pymysql.cursors import DictCursor


class Emp(object):

def __init__(self, no, name, job, sal):
self.no = no
self.name = name
self.job = job
self.sal = sal

def __str__(self):
return f'\n编号:{self.no}\n姓名:{self.name}\n职位:{self.job}\n月薪:{self.sal}\n'


def main():
page = int(input('页码: '))
size = int(input('大小: '))
con = pymysql.connect(host='localhost', port=3306,
database='hrs', charset='utf8',
user='root', password='123456')
try:
with con.cursor() as cursor:
cursor.execute(
'select eno as no, ename as name, job, sal from tb_emp limit %s,%s',
((page - 1) * size, size)
)
for emp_tuple in cursor.fetchall():
emp = Emp(*emp_tuple)
print(emp)
finally:
con.close()


if __name__ == '__main__':
main()

Written by

Machine Learning / Deep Learning / Python / Flutter cakeresume.com/yanwei-liu

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